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HOPI PRISONERS AT CARLISLE, 1907 / HOPIS IN CARLISLE UNIFORMS, 1912hopi prisoners
LEFT: Tewanima, front row, second from left | RIGHT: Tewanima, back row, first on left

The first photograph in this pair was made in 1907. It portrays eleven Hopis who were sent to the Carlisle Indian School as prisoners. They had committed no crime but were taken as hostages by the U.S. Army in retaliation for Hopi protests against the construction of a government school on their land. When Louis Tewanima arrived at Charlisle in 1907 he was 28 years old at the time. He weighed only 110 pounds and did not look like an athlete, but Hopis were known to be good runners. In fact, Tewanima turned out to be one of the greatest long-distance runners in history. Carlisle sent him to represent the United States in the Olympic Games of both 1908 and 1912, though he was still technically a prisoner and not a U.S. citizen. In 1912 he won a silver medal in the 10,000-meter run.

Photos: CUMBERLAND COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY

A Moira Productions Film in association with Datline Productions, 2008, Lillian Lincoln Foundation