This image of a "hostile" Sioux Indian camp near Pine Ridge, South Dakota, was taken by John C. Grabill sometime between 1886 and 1891. Grabill's studio was in Sturgis, South Dakota. He often traveled to the Pine Ridge Reservation to depict Sioux life in those last years of tentative resistance that ended with the Army massacre of Lakotas at Wounded Knee in December 1890. Although the buffalo herds were largely gone, this image of horses watering in the river and tipis set up on the plain is not unlike an Sioux camp decades earlier, when following the great herds was a way of life. There's a connection with the Carlisle Indian Industrial School here: On January 7, 1891, an army officer, Lieutenant Edward Casey, was shot at No Water Creek by a young Brule Sioux named Plenty Horses. Plenty Horses had been schooled at Carlisle and was later acquitted of murder on the grounds that a state of war existed at the time.

indina camp

A Moira Productions Film in association with Datline Productions, 2008, Lillian Lincoln Foundation